Independent Research


Representing Temporal Network based on dDTF of EEG signals in Children with Autism and Healthy Children

Autism, Electroencephalography, direct Directed Transfer Function, Effective Connectivity
Temporal Network Theory, Directed Temporal Network


19 Channel Z-Score and LORETA Neurofeedback: Does the Evidence Support the Hype?

Robert Coben, D. Corydon Hammond, and Martijn Arns
We conducted a review of the empirical literature to determine if such claims were warranted. This
review included the above search terms in Pubmed, Google scholar and any references that met our criteria from the
ZNFB publication list and was restricted to group based studies examining improvement in a clinical population that
underwent peer review (book chapters, magazine articles or conference presentations are not included since these are not peer reviewed). Fifteen relevant studies emerged with only six meeting our criterion.


A Review of Traditional and Novel Treatments for Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Systematic Review and Expert Panel

Richard E. Frye, Daniel Rossignol, Manuel F. Casanova, Gregory L. Brown, Victoria Martin, Stephen Edelson, Robert Coben, Jeffrey Lewine, John C. Slattery, Chrystal Lau, Paul Hardy, S. Hossein Fatemi, Timothy D. Folsom, Derrick MacFabe, and James B. Adams
Systematic review article based on expert panel first gathered at Autism One conference in 2009. Presents evidence in support of traditional and non-traditional treatments.


Neurofeedback for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Emerging Empirical Evidence

Robert Coben
This chapter which summarizes recent research and findings was published in the new book entitled Imaging in Autism. Neurofeedback is highlighted as one of the few treatments mentioned in this book by Dr. Robert Coben.


Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Review of the Literature

Robert Coben • Michael Linden • Thomas E. Myers
Our first review of the literature on autism and neurofeedback. Published in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback in 2010.


Connectivity Theory of Autism: Use of Connectivity Measures in Assessing and Treating Autistic Disorders

Robert Coben, Ph.D., Thomas E. Myers, MS
This article was published in 2008 in the Journal of Neurotherapy as part of a special two part series on EEG connectivity. We outline connectivity anomalies in autistic children and how they may be remedied with neurofeedback approaches


Connectivity-Guided Neurofeedback for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Robert Coben
This article published in Biofeedback outlines the connectivity model of neurofeedback training used in the treatment of ASD.


The Importance of EEG Assessment for Autistic Disorders

Robert Coben
This article was authored by Dr Robert Coben and was published in the summer of 2009. It discussed the importance of EEG assessment and various analyses that can be generated to assist in understanding autistic children.


The Impact of Coherence Neurofeedback on Reading Delays in Learning Disabled Children: A Randomized Controlled Study

Robert Coben, Emma Kate Wright, Scott L. Decker, and Tina Morgan
Learning disabilities are the fastest growing category within special education services; approximately 5% of the total national student population has been diagnosed with a learning disability. Deficits in reading, writing, or verbal expression limit a student’s ability to engage within the educational environment. Recognizing the importance of finding an effective treatment for learning disorders, INS co-founder Dr. Coben and colleagues conducted a randomized, controlled study of the effects of Neurofeedback on dyslexia in 2015.


Introduction to advances in EEG connectivity

Robert Coben, William Hudspeth
This special issue of the Journal of Neurotherapy has been devoted to Advances in EEG Connectivities. These purposes include providing education to our readers and collaboration among the scientists and authors. Multiple connectivity metrics have been defined with an emphasis on coherence and multivariate connectivity measures. The goals of connectivity measurements should include accuracy compared to known neurological networks and utility in assessment and application for intervention (e.g., EEG coherence training)


Consensus statement from the Elias Tembenis Seizures think tank: Seizures in autism spectrum disorder

Frye, Richard & Casanova, Manuel & Fatemi, S.Hossein & Folsom, Timothy & Reutiman, Teri & V, Martin & FL, Baker & C, Griffin & S, Edelson & Coben, Robert & P, Hardy & Lewine, Jeffrey & Rossignol, Daniel & D, MacFabe & Slattery, John & JB, Adams. (2012)
Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally de#ned disorder, research shows that ASD is associated with neurological, genetic, gastrointestinal, and other medical abnormalities. In this article, we discuss the most prevalent neurological abnormality a$ecting children with ASD — seizures. To provide insight and knowledge about this subject, we held three Elias Tembenis Seizures “Think Tanks that included practitioners who treat children with ASD and seizure disorders using both traditional and non-traditional treatments. “is article outlines the summary points of the major agreed upon conclusions of the think tanks. “ese conclusions were based on the most valid, evidence-based information available on seizures and epilepsy in ASD.


Enduring Effects of Neurofeedback in Children

Robert Coben Martijn Arns, Mirjam Kouijzer
This chapter demonstrates the benefits of neurofeedback as a treatment for children with developmental disorders. Neurofeedback has shown efficacy for a wide variety of developmental disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and dyslexia. Preliminary research suggests that neurofeedback is an effective therapy for reducing core symptoms in children with both autism and ADHD. Neuro- feedback is a therapy that teaches clients to regulate their brain activity to work in a new, more efficient way through the use of underlying operant conditioning paradigms. This treatment involves providing a subject with visual and/or auditory “feedback” for particular neural behaviors. Through conditioning, the subject is taught to inhibit EEG frequencies that are excessively generated and augment frequencies that are deficient. With continuous training and coaching, individuals are taught to maintain brainwave patterns concurrent with healthy neural functioning.


Cognitive determinants of unawareness of deficits: The importance of specific frontal-mediated executive functions

Robert Coben, S. I. Boksenbaum, A. M. Kulberg


Four Channel Multivariate Coherence Training: Development and Evidence in Support of a New Form of Neurofeedbac

The use of QEEG guided neurofeedback in the treatment has shown promise as an emerging treatment. To date, EEG based neurofeedback approaches have used technology with limited sophistication. We designed a new form of neurofeedback that uses four channels of EEG with a multivariate calculation of coherence metrics. Following a mathematical presentation of this model, we present findings of a multi-site study with clinical subjects with various diagnoses. We compared this form of multivariate coherence neurofeedback to the more standard two channel coherence training. Findings showed that there was a significant difference between the groups with four channel multivariate coherence neurofeedback leading to greater changes in EEG metrics.


Using quantitative and analytic EEG methods in the understanding of connectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a theory of mixed over- and under-connectivity

Robert Coben1,2*, Iman Mohammad-Rezazadeh3,4 and Rex L. Cannon5 We have presented three different forms of multivariate connectivity analysis with increasing levels of sophistication (including one based on principle components analysis, sLORETA source coherence, and Granger causality) to present a hypothesis that more advanced statistical approaches to EEG coherence analysis may provide more detailed and accurate information than pairwise measurements. Neural connectivity in epilepsy as measured by Granger causality Robert Coben1,2* and Iman Mohammad-Rezazadeh3 We present data showing how Granger causality can be used with EEG data to measure connectivity across brain regions involved in ictal events and their resolution. We have provided two case examples as a demonstration of how to obtain and interpret such data.


EEG Analyses in the Assessment of Autistic Disorders

Robert Coben , Robert J. Chabot , and Laurence Hirshberg
Chapter on QEEG findings in autism published in the text Imaging in Autism (2013). Co-authored with Bob Chabot and Larry Hirshberg. Includes subtyping, Vareta and discriminant data in the largest sample to date.


The Relative Efficacy of Connectivity Guided and Symptom Based EEG Biofeedback for Autistic Disorders

Robert Coben, Thomas E. Myers
One of the few studies published that empirically compared forms of neurofeedback. Demonstrates relatively greater improvements from qeeg guided connectivity based neurofeedback even after patients are equated for diagnosis and symptom severit


EEG Assessment and Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Robert Coben, Kevin McKeon
Published in Autism File in 2009 as an introduction and review of how EEG assessment can be beneficial in autistic cases. An example or progress and discussion of neurofeedback as a treatment for this problems is also presented.


EEG Power and Coherence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Robert Coben,, Adam R. Clarke, William Hudspeth, Robert J. Barry
Important study that has been referenced by many published in Clinical Neurophysiology. This work was done and published jointly with Adam Clarke, Robert Barry and William Hudspeth.


Assessment Guided Neurofeedback for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Robert Coben, PhD, Ilean Padolsky, PhD
Our initial article published in the Journal for Neurotherapy. Demonstrated that training connectivity anomalies in autism leads to significant improvement


EEG biofeedback for autism spectrum disorder: a commentary on kouijzer et Al. (2013)

Robert Coben, Rachel Ricca
Research conducted by Kouijzer et al. (Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 38(1):17-28, 2013) compared the effects of skin conductance biofeedback and EEG-biofeedback on patients with autistic spectrum disorders to determine their relative efficacy. While they found a difference between treatment and control groups, there was no significant difference on many variables between the two treatment groups. From this, the increase in symptom alleviation from autistic spectrum disorder was attributed to non-specific factors surrounding the study. We now offer alternative explanations for their findings and propose different options for future studies.


Sensitivity and specificity of long wave infrared imaging for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Robert Coben, Thomas E. Meyers
This study was the first to investigate the efficacy of long wave infrared (LWIR) imaging as a diagnostic tool for ADHD.


Infrared imaging and neurofeedback: Initial reliability and validity

Robert Coben, PhD, Ilean Padolsky, PhD
The neurological correlates underlying positive treatment outcomes for neurofeedback have been either unavailable or difficult to demonstrate. Assessment of brain-related changes associated with neurofeedback is needed to further establish its empirical basis. Infrared (IR) imaging is a noninvasive assessment of brain activity with high spatial and temporal resolution. Findings indicated that IR imaging may be a reliable and valid measure of treatment outcomes with clinical utility and sensitivity.


Efficacy of Connectivity Guided Neurofeedback on Language Functions and IQ in Autistic Children

Robert Coben, PhD


Facial affect processing in autism: A comparison to ADHD

T. Myers, Robert Coben


The Cognitive Estimation Test: A potential new measure of frontal-mediated executive functioning


Autism Level 3: Probably Efficacious

Robert Coben, PhD. Rachel Ricca, BA


Neural connectivity in epilepsy as measured by Granger causality

Robert Coben, Iman Mohammad-Rezazadeh